The production, distribution and use of energy is going to change significantly in the coming decades, due to the need to decarbonise our society. At the moment, energy is transported internationally between countries and continents in the form of oil and Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) ship tankers. In the future, these are likely to be replaced by bulk transport of alternative “green” liquid fuels, of which ammonia is seen as a leading candidate. This ammonia would be produced in countries where solar and wind resources are plentiful, such as North Africa, the Middle East and Australia. In these locations, renewable energy sources would be used to electrolyse water and produce green hydrogen, which would be converted to ammonia for transport to end-use destinations. At import terminals, in Europe and the UK for example, the ammonia would be bunkered in large cryogenic storage tanks, used directly as a fuel and/or cracked to produce hydrogen for onward transport to users through gas pipelines. In addition to this use of ammonia as a global energy vector, ammonia is also widely seen as a promising option to decarbonise the international shipping industry, i.e., as a fuel for ships.

Ammonia has several useful properties as compared to alternative carbon-free fuels such as hydrogen. The boiling point of liquid ammonia is only -33°C, as compared to -253°C for hydrogen. It has a higher volumetric energy density than hydrogen. It is also already transported internationally in bulk by ship. The risks of fires and explosions are less severe for ammonia than hydrogen, but its toxicity presents some issues.

The aim of this talk at the Safety and Reliability Society Midlands Branch meeting is to:

  • Summarise current government and industry drivers for the growth of clean ammonia infrastructure

  • Present scientific knowledge gaps relating to ammonia hazards and risks

  • Discuss ongoing and possible future research projects that are aimed at addressing these knowledge gaps, including the USA-led Jack Rabbit III project.

The Webinar will be presented by Simon Gant, Technical Fellow, Health and Safety Executive (HSE) Science and Research Centre, Buxton, UK

To register for the Webinar, please click here.

Acknowledgement: The contents of this abstract, including any opinions and/or conclusions expressed or recommendations made, do not supersede current HSE policy or guidance.


Tuesday, 31st January 2023 at 5:30pm


Tuesday, 31st January 2023 at 7:00pm